Final Assesment

There blogs that I learn the most about was  the Milky Way, Solar System, and the size and age of the Universe.  This three blogs I want  to say it blew up my mind because  these were the least things that would cross off my mind. Personally I have never thought about  how the universe was formed and the billions of years that it took to developed also the formation of each and every one element of our solar system.

Before I started this class I was kind of afraid because I thought that astronomy was only for people who knew how to make sky observations.  I was also afraid because everyone who knew about me taking this class would make negative comments about the class and the hard that it is to learn about space events. Things that surprised me the most  about universe were how space works, before I started this class I would never knew that we were living in galaxy and that in this galaxy many space objects were flying around it. It is amazing how stars are formed every day and the time it takes for a stars to finally shine in the admospher of our  Milky Way.  It is amazing how many stars can exist in our space in the blog that I posted about the Milky Way I learned that in our milky way there is only 1% of stars comparing to how many stars are there in the universe.

Our Solar System blog was another blog that I learn so much about it.  It was a blog were I learned the many planets that make part of our solar system.  I believe I had a great time reading about it.  It was nice to know about the different components of all the planets.  It was also interesting that planets have different tempeatures in it.  I also learned that earth is the only planet that can give life.  It was interesting how all the different planets orbit the sun at a different speed and motion and shapes of the planets and that our solar system does not just consist of plates it is also composed of bright stars and the moon which makes a fundamental part of earth.

Reading about the size and age of our universe was like reading about something out of this world.  Just by immaging what it took for the universe to be in the right shape that it is now is totally out of my range of thinking.  13.82 billion years old is the age of the universe. I could not imaging how the universe was born.   It also interesting he size of our universe wich is 46 billion years ligh.  Just by immaging the size of the universe it make me feel small.

Most of the the time I enjoyed writing posts because it gave more confidence on how to read and learn about the importance of our space phenomenons.  I felt that I earned how  our solar system works and that the sky does not move. Our planets moves on its axis and that it takes 24 hours for it to make a complete turn arround.  it was also nice to know that stars are stationary and that because of them we would not exist.  I think that learning about current events gave me more confidence and helped me to be informed about different things that happend every day in space.  I would strongly recommend astronomy classes to my peers because is a clase that anyone can learn from it.

Not having to do quizzes in class made feel comfortable because it was not timing and I could do them in my own time.  After taking this class it has made me feel more like a human than before.  Now I feel that I notice more about current events in space.  Now I know why stars shine I also learned how to appreciate life in general. With what I learn in astronomy I can tech my future generation to come.



Finally I am done!

Before taking this class I didn’t want to take any physical science because I had such a bad experience with two professor’s before you. I had two science teachers that I dropped. The first one I did not feel bad because there was twenty-six students and by the end of the semester there was six students left in class. The second teacher, well I could not understand her or the materials I was learning. By this time, I said “I need to graduate.” and well I took a chance in astronomy.

By far this is one of the best experience I’ve had, if it was not for this class I would not have learned about planets having any or no seasons at all. I enjoyed this objective because I learned that seasons were caused by two factors, one being the axial tilt and the second is the variable distance from the sun. During this article I learned that out of the eight planets that circle the sun only four planets do not have seasons such as Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and Neptune. For some reason I have always been interested in the planet Jupiter, I’m not to sure if it’s because Jupiter has four moons, or its’ rings that are faint and made out of dust, but during this article I read how Jupiter will never experience any type of season. Only because Jupiter spins faster than any other planet, the closest Jupiter will experience close to a season is the “red eye storm.”

The next objective I enjoyed learning about was objective 11, being able to distinguish the distance and the size of stars. During this article I had learned about a telescope I talked about in objective nine, called the Hubble Telescope. In objective nine I was able to explain the Hubble Telescope and in objective 11, the article I read discusses how the Hubble Telescope is able to determine the parallax angles to find the distance from the stars. Objective 11 was interesting to me because what caught my interest was an example  we did in class such as holding our index finger straight in front of our faces and as we shut one eye we would see our finger shifting. I thought this was a perfect example of learning the parallax.

I just want to say, I did not really talk to the professor much, but thank you for giving me a better experience than my other two past experiences. I feel confident in this class and that’s something I have not been able to say ever in a class or in a semester ever.

Final Assessment: What I Learned

To start off, this was a very fun and interesting class to take that I actually ended up liking it a lot. I have learned a lot about the universe that I would have never thought of before. Before taking this class I did have some idea on what astronomy is, I knew it had something to do with studying the planets and stars but there is much more! I think that reading current space events is important even outside of class. That is because this is all real and we live in on a blue planet in space in the solar system in the Milky Way in the UNIVERSE! So, yes it is good to learn more about our neighborhood and what is actually going on out there. Space news is just as equally important as news on earth.

What enhanced my knowledge on astronomy was working on the blogposts. The blogposts were to be posted every week onto this site that were about space related articles. My top three favorite blog posts this semester are the “Most Distant Star Ever Seen”, “Aging Galaxies”, and “H-R Diagram Finding Life Near Ancient Stars”. These blogposts are my favorite because on these three I actually read the same article more than once just to understand what it being explained and because they were the most fun to read! I really enjoyed writing these blogposts for class because it kept me interested in learning more about what current astronomy news had to bring. I will admit, I was not as interested at first but as I went on it was turned out to be fun and not just homework.

To begin with, the “Most Distant Star Ever Seen” post is my number one favorite because it really amazed me when I read the article. The article that was posted online not only talked about how there is the MOST DISTANT star mankind has ever seen but it also showed images of the star the Hubble Telescope has taken. Now how can this be? Us humans living on a small planet compered to the whole entire universe are able to actually see what is beyond? What is also very interesting about this post is that this star may and probably already no longer exists today, so we are actually looking back in time. This star shows how we are so advanced in technology, like creating the Hubble Telescope to take high detailed images, and it is cool that in the future we can look back and say, “Yes, I remember this time when the image of the most distant star was released. I have seen that image” which to me is very cool.

My second favorite blogpost of this semester is the “Aging Galaxies” blogpost, this one was one I enjoyed writing about after reading the article is because it talks about the sizes and shapes of galaxies due to their age. As mentioned in the article as well as in my blogpost, the sizes are because of the age of the galaxies and the stars in them. So, if the stars are billions of years old and considered ancient then the galaxy will have a more rounder shape while the galaxies with younger shapes will have the classic elliptical shape. Now who knew that the shapes and sizes of galaxies were because of the ages of the stars because I did not know that, but I am glad that I know now.

Finally, the “H-R Diagram Finding Life Near Ancient Stars” blogpost was very fun to write as well. The article that I have read was kind of scary but cool at the same time. Astronomers have been using the Hertzsrung-Russell Diagram to plot stars on a graph according to their size, temperature, and luminosity. Although, this digram is used for these purposes of seeing where the star belongs on the graph it has also helped astronomers discover stars so luminous and so hot that those stars may be a “sun” like ours with habitable planets orbiting around them. That is because if there is a sun like ours with eight planets orbiting around it, one containing life (that’s us), then there must be another solar system out there in this big universe.

To conclude, I am very glad that I ended up taking this class. Yes, this class is required for me to take in order to graduate but I actually was curious about it as well. I have learned so much that I am beginning to scare my parents, because I know so much about space and the beyond… according to them. I have taken simple physics classes in high school that included some information about the motion of planets as well but I believe I learned more detailed information about that in Astronomy 101. By saying that I learned A LOT this semester is because I did not even know that we are located in the Milky Way, I am embarrassed to admit, but yes I had no idea because I thought it was some foreign galaxy further way in the universe. Again, this was a very fun class and I would definitely recommend others to take it if they are just slightly curious about space because they will end up learning much more. Also, I would like to add is that I will continue to read more articles on current space events just because I think they are essential to know and just for fun.

“Most Distant Star Ever Seen” :
“Aging Galaxies”:
“H-R Diagram and Ancient Stars”:

Final Post…

I found assessments 9, 11, and 17 to be my favorite posts from this semester. Those were telescopes, distance and size of stars, and size and age of the universe. I will start off with assessment 9. I found it very interesting to see how telescopes worked as I remember having one while I was younger and how I wondered how I could see so far. My favorite thing was looking at the craters in the moon and now I know how I was able to see them. I also found the article I found pretty interesting as it was about the biggest space telescope to day and I thought that was pretty cool. It also showed initiative from the US as they had been cutting budgets for space exploration and now they are putting money into it again. Next up is assessment 11 I found that interesting as I knew stars were far away, but I did not know how far and and I honestly thought they lived longer. Then I also learned how to see which one was older based on their distance and luminosity so I found that interesting as a bright one from two times as far away as the dull one could seem the same distance away as a dull one. Then I really liked my article as it was about the largest star we know about and it is 265 times as large as our sun and I found that fascinating as I was thinking about how, if at all possible, we could use its energy some day much like we do with solar panels for our sun. It made me think about the opportunities in terms of clean energy. And lastly, I found assessment 17 interesting as it showed how the universe is following our laws of physics in its expansion as we do not quite yet have a full understanding of dark matter where all of it is taking place. I liked the analogy of the balloon as that was very helpful. It essentially all happens behind the scenes as we can not see the upside down (Stranger Things reference definitely intentional). Then I found the article interesting as it actually put a number on how fast it grows and it is growing faster than predicted which suggested that the laws of physics need to be reevaluated and that means as soon as that is figured out we should be learning much more about our universe. I found everything pretty interesting as it gave me hope for space exploration again as I did not live through the first wave and only saw it in history books, but hopefully some day later on, I will be able to go into space if space travel can become normal to experience it for myself. I find this to be more likely by the minute as the space race is starting up again and with Tesla in the race it is pushing everyone to do it faster so it could be the same as going to Disney world some day.

Assessment 9 (Telescopes):

Assessment 11 (Distance and Size of Stars):

Assessment 17 (Size and Age of the Universe):

Before taking this class I thought astronomy was just all about looking at the stars and I thought that was what we were going to do in the planetarium, however, I was mistaken. We ended up learning about so much more including black matter, which I found rather interesting as I had heard the term tossed around in the news, but I never knew what it was. The most surprising thing about astronomy to me is how much we have advanced yet how little we still know about the universe. I found the class reviews to be very helpful as I looked back upon them to see what I could use for the blog posts as it kind of served like a second notebook. I enjoyed the process of writing blog posts because it really helped me understand every section and objective better, however I was not a fan of finding an article as that was a bit hard to do at times. I definitely feel like I learned more than expected in this class as I only thought we would be quizzed on constellations and things of that nature. I think that reading up on current events in astronomy is pretty interesting as it seems to be a field that is picking up speed at a rapid rate. I would recommend that future classes continue to do blog posts as it will definitely get them to learn the material instead of forgetting what was spoon fed in class. Not having in class exams or quizzes was very beneficial as it allowed me to focus on the blog posts so that I could really understand it without circling a-e on a Scranton. The part of the class that helped me understand the concepts the most were the blog posts and the ones that I felt helped the least we the moon observations and news stories as it was a bit cold outside in the winter when we were doing observations. It just did not feel like it helped me get a better understanding of the universe how the rest of the class was doing. All in all I would still recommend the class and I would just say to keep up with the work as if one falls back even a week, it gets a bit difficult to catch up.

Thank You for all of the lessons and have a great summer!

Til Infinity & Beyond Astronomy



The listed above posts turned out to be my favorite posts of the semester primarily because of how enlightened I felt after reading about the topics discussed in the article and relating these ancient concepts and findings to the modern Astronomy we learned in class.

Son of God was at the Center of the Christian Faith, the Sun Ought to be at the Center of the Universe

was one of my first blog posts and definitely my favorite. This post and article took me back to a time where Astronomy, society and the world were in confusion trying to understand what exactly the universe and heavens were. Johannes Kepler was the man to blame. In this title he argued against religion that so desperately relied on the geocentric model with Earth being at the center of it all. Through his studies he found that, the geocentric model wasn’t accurate, he searched for something more divine than that. Kepler found planets moving in ellipses and moved faster when closer to the sun and slower when further away. He found through his calculations that Earth’s ratio of highest velocity and slowest velocity reduced to 16/15… same ratio between the notes fa and mi. This story took me back to these times and it helped flourish my learning of Astronomy and this particular objective by feeding me an old past time history which I was able to connect with theories of today, just as the rest of these posts have in common.

Babylonian Math Leap > Doppler Effect

This was an article I stumbled across. I searched through everybody’s blog posts and noticed how all of my classmates were studying the doppler effects with planets and stars, & that just seemed too common for me. I want to study something of an outlier. And so, the internet led me to discover a finding of a “Babylonian Math Leap.” In the post I attached an image of what exactly is meant by this ancient finding. Archeologists found a stone tablet that was used to track Jupiter across the sky, revealing a technique 1500 years ahead of its time. Using a graph to understand motion or speed over time is usually traced back to scholars in Oxford and Paris around 1350 and to Sir Isaac Newton who develop[ed integral calculus. But, this simple stone tablet and a simple arithmetic based procedure was able to measure and calculate the distance Jupiter traveled in 60 days. I found this shocking because during class the whole understanding of the Doppler Effect seemed pretty complex, and to come across an ancient civilization’s method of using a stone which helped track a planet completely different and before the Doppler Effect was even thought of allowed me to understand how advanced humanity really is and really can be in the future. It made me question what more is there to be done on planet Earth and really gave me a good comparison of different methods to calculate movements of astronomical objects.

Family Ties

This last post I will share helped me further progress my study in how planets are formed and what exactly they are formed with. It introduced me to planetesimals – building blocks of the planets (uniquely attached asteroids)- and showed me findings of ancient asteroids that might be as old as our solar system. The asteroids that were found are located in the asteroid belt which seems to divide the terrestrial planets and Jovian planets. Most of the asteroids that hit Earth come from this region and it has to be related that these asteroids from this region also helped create the rocky atmosphere of Earth and possible other terrestrial planets.

All in all, I am interested in the history of most subject I learned, and although we discussed some history of Astronomy in class, it was not enough to my liking. Being able to pick and choose my own articles to write about allowed me to fill in these gaps and enhanced my study of Astronomy and the Universe up above. Before Astronomy 101, I was expecting a very difficult class because of all the talk I heard from others who once enrolled into it. I found interest in the topic along the way due to its close ties with my major, Philosophy. I learned so much in this class, and I am constantly now sharing this information with people I encounter who share a sitting of looking up at the sky and stars with me. I used to do it before and have to wonder what exactly space and stars were, but now I know how they are made. I understand where we come from, what those stars will soon become one day and it will only getter deeper and more advanced, from here on out, until infinity.

-Xavier Colon

Thank you for being a great professor and Astronomer Dr. Morrison!

Last Post

Some of my favorite blog posts were objective 2 (seasons) and objective 4 (heliocentric or geocentric). The reason for objective 2 being one of my favorite blog posts is because I was interested to learn about seasons and although it was somewhat difficult to find an article to relate to the objective, when I did it was easy to explain how seasons come about. Objective 4 was also one of my favorites because even though I got slightly confused on what Kepler believed it was easy to form the blog post because I had already learned this material in other classes and making the correction on the post was also easy. Overall, each blog post I had to do in class gave me another piece of knowledge that I will take with me. They all had challenges to finding articles to relate to, but it wasn’t too challenging if I knew the material well.

When I compare how I felt about astronomy at the start of the semester to how I feel now about astronomy, I would say I have grown my knowledge about astronomy. I learned new things that I thought would be common sense, but in reality sometimes it takes a little bit more thinking. I would recommend that future Astronomy 101 classes to continue to do a class blog, because even though it is a lot of writing and one can sometimes fall behind with blog posts it is a good and different learning experience. With having to do blog posts you put to work what you learned in class and put it in your own words to explain the connection.

I hope that future Astronomy 101 students walk away having a better understanding about what astronomy is and feel like they strongly know a certain part of it while also enjoying the learning environment the professor creates.

Final Post

I enjoyed the process of writing blog post because it was a new interesting way to learn the material while doing your own research. This ultimately help me understand the material and apply the material learned to real life current events. I also thoroughly enjoyed reading these different articles because they all were very easy reads, as well as, being easy to understand. One of my favorite blog post that I have written is called, Radio Echoes. I used an article called, Scientists detect radio echoes of a black hole feeding on a star, written by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I liked this blog post because I thought that the current objective was very interesting and attention grabbing. This article depicted how scientist were able to obtain that data that black holes emit energy and they were able to understand this through the use of x-ray emissions. I thought this was overall a very interesting post because I got to learn more about the different spectrums of light as well as learn a lot more about different frequencies. I did not have much prior knowledge on different wavelengths and radio waves so this was all new information, in which I found to be fascinating.

Radio Echos


The next blog post that I enjoyed writing is called, Galaxies. I used the article, Astronomers see a pileup of 14 separate galaxies in the early universe, by Matt Williams. This blog post was really fun to write, as well as, gather information for. I find galaxies to be extremely fascinating, so this was one of my favorite blog post and current objectives. I thought the article I chose to use was also very alluring as well. I thought it was very intriguing to see how an international team of scientist were able to observe proto clusters of 14 different galaxies which were located 12.4 billion light years away. They also gather a lot of different information from this discovery. For example, these scientists were able to see that these galaxies were forming stars at a rate that is a thousand times faster than our galaxy does and were crammed inside of a region of space that was about three times the size of the Milky way. Overall, I was easily able to apply this to the class lecture as well as, the lecture tutorial handbook because in class we looked at different galaxies and classified them according to their different characteristics.



Before taking this astronomy class I honestly had no prior knowledge about our galaxy or anything that pertains to it. It was very exciting to learn more facts and different information on astronomy. I loved that there were no quizzes or exams because it honestly made me get more in depth on my blog post and put more effort into them. Which helped me in the long run because I actually can retain that information, rather than an exam format in which I am likely to forget. Overall, I would recommend that the future astronomy 101 classes continue to do a class blog because it really does help students understand the material and the current objectives a lot more than an exam would.