Kepler’s failure turn to success

In the article above, explains how Kepler’s understanding of our solar system was incorrect, but continued to push for a Geocentric solar system. The evidence Kepler provided was great, he fail short in explaining how Mars moved since it didn’t follow the pattern laid out by Kepler. However, Kepler didn’t give up, afther awhile he decided to give up on his theory and came up with a new one. Instead of going in circles, Kepler said that they went in ellipses around the sun, this became known as, Kepler’s three laws.

I find it interesting, how someone like Kepler still continued in solving the mystery of our solar system, even after his theory was put to rest. A lot of scientists who put their whole life’s into a theory, only to get turn down usually give up or are to stubborn to give up their ideas. Kepler must of put lots of work to achieve this results, he really is amazing.

In class, learning Kepler’s laws was a pain to actually understand, because our whole lives we where told in school that all the planets moved around the Sun in perfect circles, at least for me personally, because nobody in my years of school told me that they moved differently, I found that out for myself. In class though I found out that it was called Kepler laws of motion. So learn this was extremely interesting and leanering more about Kepler was also interesting. I’m not good at math either, so hearing a scientist like him gave me some courage.


The Bigger the Better

Isaac Newton, perhaps one of the greatest mathematicians, came up with a mathematical way to explain the gravitational forces experienced between two objects. This formula is, F=(Gm1m2)/r2. G is the gravitational constant, m is the mass of each object and r is the distance from the center of each object. Newton defined force as something that changes the motion of an object. His ideas can be easily be seen by studying the planets and moons.

The following website will show the relationship between mass and radii of two objects and how it impacts the rotation of a planet. . With this simulation a viewer will be able to choose the mass and separation of multiple objects and will be able to witness how they effect one another.

In this article, researchers are discovering that planets are scattering the moons of other planets because of how close they are to each other. In Newton’s gravitational as r decreases F increases. So the closer to the planet then the closer the gravitational force. On top of this if the planet is larger it will definitely pull a moon away from the smaller planet. On Earth, there is a moon that rotates because of how massive and close the Earth is compared to its neighboring planets. If Jupiter were in the spot of Mars and stayed the same distance than the whole gravitational field would change on Earth.  

Being able to study the gravation caused by other planets in other solar systems will be potentially useful to the scientific community. With use of Kepler’s and Newton’s Laws astronomers will be able to predict the outcome of space missions and how to safely conduct experiments. Hopefully we will be able to better understand our universe with more time to do the math.

Johannes Kepler and His Three Laws

Johannes Kepler tried explaining our solar system in three laws. The first law states that all planets move in an elliptical orbit around their sun which rests at one focus. Law two states that if a line were to be drawn from the start of one position to another in the same amount of time the area would be equivalent to any other location. The third law is the square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. To sum all these laws up Kepler realized that the mass and distance impacted the speed of the planet. explains the impact of the eccentricity on a planets orbit. This demonstration also shows how the area of the triangle will always be the same from the to foci of the eclipse.

This article discusses the planetary diversity in other solar systems. The eccentricities of the planets determine how elliptical the orbit is. The Earth for example has an extremely low eccentricity which means the orbit is similar to a circle. Scientists have discovered a planet that has the eccentricity of 0.86 which is the highest recorded of any planet. To put this in perspective the Earth’s eccentricity is 0.017. Scientists believed this extreme eccentricity was caused by an early planetary interaction in the solars system.  The orbit of the planet is so extreme that is skims the surface of the sun and will eventually be engulfed within 100 million years.

With an understanding of Kepler’s Laws astronomers will be able to successfully send rockets to other planets and potentially other solar systems. Applying Kepler’s Laws is extremely important to space travel and planetary exploration. Luckily enough, our solar system has rather small eccentric planets and could be easily be mapped out compared to some that have bizarre eccentricities. Hopefully within the next few years we will see people on different planets trying to expand the human race. Even though that’s probably a bad thing to spread.

Heliocentric Model of The Solar System

This article discusses the retrograde motion of Mercury and Jupiter that seem to happen at the same time. This event is not dangerous or even anywhere near harmful to the Earth or the solar system. Retrograde motion is an illusion caused by the Earth passing planets. During retrograde motion the planets appear to be moving backwards. Jupiter’s retrograde motion lasts for four to five months at a time while Mercury’s lasts for only a few weeks. If you were to breakdown the word, retrograde the prefix re- means “to go back”. This makes sense because the planets appear to go backwards in the sky.  Ancient astronomers, who believe the Earth was the center of the universe, explained this bizarre phenomenon by saying it was similar to spinning in a circle while spinning a ball around your hand. Obviously, this makes no sense in today’s environment because we know the our solar system revolves around the sun.

Retrograde motion proved that previous astronomers who believed in the geocentric model were wrong. Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler were the first astronomers to make the heliocentric model. This model placed the sun at the center of the solar system and the planets rotating around it. Astronomers were able to confirm Copernicus and Kepler’s theories on the solar system by mapping the planets and the stars. Planet, which means “wandering star”, falls nothing short of its name. Astronomers were able to recognize that planets would move throughout the sky while stars would stay in a constant position.

Recognizing the planets experience retrograde motion it would be useful for new space explorers like, SpaceX and NASA to understand the movements of planets.
With this information about the solar system Einstein and Hawkings would have never been able to explain the events that they discovered. The were both theoretical physicists who pushed the limitations of astronomy and tried explaining the unknown. This is the exact thing ancient astronomers tried doing but later they were found to be wrong. With more time we will be able to hopefully fully understand our universe.

Position and Motion

In the article “astronomers measured the motion of stars” by Alison Klesman, she starts the article by saying every star in our galaxy is moving, and how it’s easy for astronomers to measure whether a star is moving toward or away from us, but it’s much harder to measure a stars motion. This leads to how we got constellations to appear over time. A “sideways” motion, called proper motion has only been measured for stars in the Milky Way until now. Klesman explains how a group of astronomers combined data from Hubble Space Telescope and the European Gaia mission, to measure proper motions of several stars. The Gaia mission measures the positions of stars. The Hubble space telescope has also measured the same stars as Gaia, but the Hubble telescope goes further of measuring stars as far as twelve years ago. The Gaia measurements will continue to help astronomers charts the motion of stars in our galaxy.

I thought the article was easy to understand. Now that I’m looking back at the material and looking back at my tutorials I see how easy the first blog is compared to all the other blogs. I can’t believe I submitted my first blog because whoah, it was bad. On the bright side,  I’m now able to look at my tutorial book and understand how stars and the moon move.

Looking back at my notes I learned that most of the discussion we did in class was about the position and motion of stars. In our lecture tutorial pages 1-6, there was figures that showed us the movement of the sun through out the day and the moon through out the night. I was not able to still understand the material until we used the projector to demonstrate the position and motion of the sun,moon,stars and the constellations rotating in each direction. I also remember learning all stars rotate around the North Star. On page five there was a question that read “the amount of time that all stars are above the horizon is twelve hours because it takes twelve hours for a star to rise in the East and set in the West.” I didn’t agree with this question because one thing that stuck with me through the class is not all stars rise and set.

Newton’s Law

Newton was the responsible person to find out how gravity works.  He came with the mathematical terms to understand and describe gravity.  The first law states that body in rest stays in rest. and the body in motion stays in motion.  Without a force, all objects will continue moving in the same direction with the same speed forever. Objects here on earth slow down only because of the force friction and air resistance.

He also explains the second law, how the velocity of an object changes when it is subjected to an external force. Acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied. F=ma.  It means that as much force you put into an object it will go faster.  In class, we learned about how a tennis ball show action on touching the floor and react by bouncing up. We learned that earth pulls down a spaceship due to the amount of earth’s mass. Newton’s force law explains with Kepler’s law.  He said that the gravitational force is the same force everywhere in the universe. If we increase the mass the force is going to decrease.


Kepler’s Law

In this lecture tutorial, we learned about Kepler’s second and third law, planetary motion in the solar system.  As a group, we concluded that as the planet gets closer to the star, the planet travels longer distances at a faster pace. Kepler’s law was important because it explains about the measurements of the orbit of planets.

After I read this page I learned that Kepler was employed by Tycho Brahe a wealthy astronomer who came up with the Geocentric model.  Kepler correctly defined the planets orbiting around the sun.  Kepler was convinced that all the planets orbits must be circular. He also noticed that an imaginary line is drawn from a planet to the Sun always have the same distance.  The article also states that Tycho wanted Kepler to define Mars-orbiting. Because of the geocentric model, Mars-orbiting did not have a place in the universe.